I've withheld posting here for some time, but here is my feedback.
Incentives to live on PvP servers
The biggest issue is honestly skillgain. On the PVE servers you are able to grind as a priest (which encourages all priests to spend their time off server as it is the most efficient.) You encourage an economy there and grinding results in goods that can be sold for high prices, specifically rares and supremes that result in an overabundance of sleep bonus which is pretty much 2x gains to characteristics and skills. (This results in anyone grinding any skills there, because odds are you can sustain perma-sb if the skills are desirable). The population on these servers is also generally higher and not as split religion wise, resulting in a higher occurance of rites for even more free sleep bonus (which encourages people to go over to also grind for free 2x gains.)
There are essentially numerous more reasons to play on PvE to better your account than there is to play on PvP. The fun part about PvP is the risk involved and actually PvPing, if you make everything else about the game better somewhere else, it is only natural people will go there for everything else.
Off Deed Mines
This would need some careful balance. My experience with off deed minedoors were as such -- You find an enemy, you fight them, they retreat to their mine. At this point, one of three things happens: The first, you leave because it takes 5 minutes to make a 70ql door and an hour to bash it with 20 people. The second, you camp the door and they log off. You could deed over them at this point, but with current mechanics they would be teleported off. If that wasn't the case, people would just either not log in again out of pride or suicide to you which isn't fun or engaging. The third, you hop them for a bit until someone on either side dies due to lucky RNG with crits, and then it reverts to one of the first two options.
The largest on-the-cuff PvP incentive is hunting. Right now, if you want to hunt you go to JK starter island or don't bother (and even there, the mob density is lackluster at best.) It's legitimately so bad we struggle to make bulk affinity meals. The others, in no particular order are HOTA, Silver, and Conquest. The HOTA system was a big step forward, but Sindusk put forth the best explanation as to why it is currently failing. A big reason is simply that it is not worth going into enemy lands for a single piece of moonmetal, it is instead preferable to wait for all the required towers to spawn and send out multiple groups to cap them all at the same time. This reduces the chance of a response, and interference, because these towers immediately despawn. I would instead propose a rotating supply depot, in conjunction with the current system, except change the system so that every tower owned generates a small but steady stream of moonmetals to the alliance capitol until it decays and respawns.
I'm going to simply respond to the others in this thread, and i'll lay out my own deeds design for the world to see here to make a point.
Lets say you wanted to raid Nuln. You could quite simply walk up and knock two walls down and drain the token, but that's not really a raid. You want the loot in a raid typically. So heres what you'd have to do to get the loot out of the deed.
The raid group would need to bash a 90ql stone (steel soon enough) minedoor which takes about 30 minutes to an hour in and of itself. Once you are inside, provided there is at least one person on, the route inside would be collapsed and reinforced. You are met with the decision at this point of either leaving, or continuing. If you continue, you need to disintegrate (2% chance per cast, spell is cancelled by any source of damage) through 6 reinforced walls within the hour after you drain the deed. This alone is statistically very unlikely. You also need to add in the fact that you need to have saccables prepared beforehand, you can maintain numbers, and you are able to build an altar offdeed, and the deed is small enough that the trip from the wall to the altars is not significant. Now lets say you get through those, we have a bridge over an underground trench that would presumably be popped if there was one person defending. This trench goes to waterlevel and is nearly 1000 slope. Its a 45 down slope, followed by the big slope, followed by a flat water tile, followed by the big up slope, followed by a 45 up slope. In order to get across this, you would need enough sandwiches to climb up the other side to the 45 slope and bash a fence to get in. That's not enough though, because you need to get loot off deed, and there is no way you can haul significant amounts out that way. You are left with one option -- Bash three walls with that method just previously stated, bash the statues in the pit, and find items on that ground that do not enter piles but clip through the floor to then allow you to strongwall 15 tiles. This is also a spell that is interrupted by any source of damage at all, and the templars respawning. (Bear in mind, the longer you stay on deed, the faster they respawn.). If you get that done, congrats. Now you have to bash or lockpick into every individual house/interior door within the remaining window.
All of this is provided you get past the drain disintegration window to begin with, that there is no more than a single person defending the deed when you raid (which is unlikely, given raid windows.), and these houses are easily bashable within 6 hours. That's why nobody raids. If BLers in this thread are curious, i can post the deed design of Malice publicly and tell you why it won't be raided within 6 hours of time at your peak. There is also the issue with timezones, some groups are european focused and others are american focused. Defending a deed is already a massive advantage, if you have numbers on top of that it's basically a non starter. You will not see any deeds raided with the current mechanic because the most time-consuming raiding issues were not addressed at all on the server. Let's not forget that if a deed is on the default raid window, you can change the raid window spontaneously even with rolling drains on your deed (See: Brotherhood of Darkness, when Nieutrazony was mayor.), or if the date of your raid was leaked and you did manage to get huge numbers for this event, you could just show up to find the raid window changed and you are forced to call it off.
The raid windows also have unintended effects when combined with things like only one lockpicker per wall, such as making coastguarding much less rewarding.
No comment here as I am of the belief that religion and combat do actually need a huge rework, small changes won't fix very much here.
The primary problem with shieldskill is just starting out. Once you hit like 40 it zooms pretty fast.